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c++ interview questions

Top c++ frequently asked interview questions

What is the name of the "-->" operator?

After reading Hidden Features and Dark Corners of C++/STL on comp.lang.c++.moderated, I was completely surprised that the following snippet compiled and worked in both Visual Studio 2008 and G++ 4.4.

Here's the code:

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
    int x = 10;
    while (x --> 0) // x goes to 0
    {
        printf("%d ", x);
    }
}

I'd assume this is C, since it works in GCC as well. Where is this defined in the standard, and where has it come from?


Source: (StackOverflow)

How do I use extern to share variables between source files in C?

I know that global variables in C sometimes have the extern keyword. What is an extern variable? What is the declaration like? What is its scope?

This is related to sharing variables across source files, but how does that work precisely? Where do I use extern?


Source: (StackOverflow)

Why does the C preprocessor interpret the word "linux" as the constant "1"?

Why does the C preprocessor in GCC interpret the word linux (small letters) as the constant 1?

test.c:

#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{       
    int linux = 5;
    return 0;
}

Result of $ gcc -E test.c (stop after the preprocessing stage):

....
int main(void)
{
    int 1 = 5;
    return 0;
}

Which -of course- yields an error.

(BTW: There is no #define linux in the stdio.h file.)


Source: (StackOverflow)

Obfuscated C Code Contest 2006. Please explain sykes2.c

How does this C program work?

main(_){_^448&&main(-~_);putchar(--_%64?32|-~7[__TIME__-_/8%8][">'txiZ^(~z?"-48]>>";;;====~$::199"[_*2&8|_/64]/(_&2?1:8)%8&1:10);}

It compiles as it is (tested on gcc 4.6.3). It prints the time when compiled. On my system:

    !!  !!!!!!              !!  !!!!!!              !!  !!!!!! 
    !!  !!  !!              !!      !!              !!  !!  !! 
    !!  !!  !!              !!      !!              !!  !!  !! 
    !!  !!!!!!    !!        !!      !!    !!        !!  !!!!!! 
    !!      !!              !!      !!              !!  !!  !! 
    !!      !!              !!      !!              !!  !!  !! 
    !!  !!!!!!              !!      !!              !!  !!!!!!

Source: sykes2 - A clock in one line, sykes2 author hints

Some hints: No compile warnings per default. Compiled with -Wall, the following warnings are emitted:

sykes2.c:1:1: warning: return type defaults to ‘int’ [-Wreturn-type]
sykes2.c: In function ‘main’:
sykes2.c:1:14: warning: value computed is not used [-Wunused-value]
sykes2.c:1:1: warning: implicit declaration of function ‘putchar’ [-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
sykes2.c:1:1: warning: suggest parentheses around arithmetic in operand of ‘|’ [-Wparentheses]
sykes2.c:1:1: warning: suggest parentheses around arithmetic in operand of ‘|’ [-Wparentheses]
sykes2.c:1:1: warning: control reaches end of non-void function [-Wreturn-type]

Source: (StackOverflow)

Why doesn't GCC optimize a*a*a*a*a*a to (a*a*a)*(a*a*a)?

I am doing some numerical optimization on a scientific application. One thing I noticed is that GCC will optimize the call pow(a,2) by compiling it into a*a, but the call pow(a,6) is not optimized and will actually call the library function pow, which greatly slows down the performance. (In contrast, Intel C++ Compiler, executable icc, will eliminate the library call for pow(a,6).)

What I am curious about is that when I replaced pow(a,6) with a*a*a*a*a*a using GCC 4.5.1 and options "-O3 -lm -funroll-loops -msse4", it uses 5 mulsd instructions:

movapd  %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13

while if I write (a*a*a)*(a*a*a), it will produce

movapd  %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm13, %xmm13

which reduces the number of multiply instructions to 3. icc has similar behavior.

Why do compilers not recognize this optimization trick?


Source: (StackOverflow)

What does "static" mean in a C program?

I've seen the word static used in different places in C code; is this like a static function/class in C# (where the implementation is shared across objects)?


Source: (StackOverflow)

Do I cast the result of malloc?

In this question, someone suggested in a comment that I should not cast the results of malloc, i.e:

int *sieve = malloc(sizeof(int)*length);

rather than:

int *sieve = (int *)malloc(sizeof(int)*length);

Why would this be the case?


Source: (StackOverflow)

What is the difference between const int*, const int * const, and int const *?

I always mess up how to use const int*, const int * const, and int const * correctly. Is there a set of rules defining what you can and cannot do?

I want to know all the do's and all don'ts in terms of assignments, passing to the functions, etc.


Source: (StackOverflow)

Speed comparison with Project Euler: C vs Python vs Erlang vs Haskell

I have taken Problem #12 from Project Euler as a programming exercise and to compare my (surely not optimal) implementations in C, Python, Erlang and Haskell. In order to get some higher execution times, I search for the first triangle number with more than 1000 divisors instead of 500 as stated in the original problem.

The result is the following:

C:

lorenzo@enzo:~/erlang$ gcc -lm -o euler12.bin euler12.c
lorenzo@enzo:~/erlang$ time ./euler12.bin
842161320

real    0m11.074s
user    0m11.070s
sys 0m0.000s

python:

lorenzo@enzo:~/erlang$ time ./euler12.py 
842161320

real    1m16.632s
user    1m16.370s
sys 0m0.250s

python with pypy:

lorenzo@enzo:~/Downloads/pypy-c-jit-43780-b590cf6de419-linux64/bin$ time ./pypy /home/lorenzo/erlang/euler12.py 
842161320

real    0m13.082s
user    0m13.050s
sys 0m0.020s

erlang:

lorenzo@enzo:~/erlang$ erlc euler12.erl 
lorenzo@enzo:~/erlang$ time erl -s euler12 solve
Erlang R13B03 (erts-5.7.4) [source] [64-bit] [smp:4:4] [rq:4] [async-threads:0] [hipe] [kernel-poll:false]

Eshell V5.7.4  (abort with ^G)
1> 842161320

real    0m48.259s
user    0m48.070s
sys 0m0.020s

haskell:

lorenzo@enzo:~/erlang$ ghc euler12.hs -o euler12.hsx
[1 of 1] Compiling Main             ( euler12.hs, euler12.o )
Linking euler12.hsx ...
lorenzo@enzo:~/erlang$ time ./euler12.hsx 
842161320

real    2m37.326s
user    2m37.240s
sys 0m0.080s

Summary:

  • C: 100%
  • python: 692% (118% with pypy)
  • erlang: 436% (135% thanks to RichardC)
  • haskell: 1421%

I suppose that C has a big advantage as it uses long for the calculations and not arbitrary length integers as the other three. Also it doesn't need to load a runtime first (Do the others?).

Question 1: Do Erlang, Python and Haskell lose speed due to using arbitrary length integers or don't they as long as the values are less than MAXINT?

Question 2: Why is Haskell so slow? Is there a compiler flag that turns off the brakes or is it my implementation? (The latter is quite probable as Haskell is a book with seven seals to me.)

Question 3: Can you offer me some hints how to optimize these implementations without changing the way I determine the factors? Optimization in any way: nicer, faster, more "native" to the language.

EDIT:

Question 4: Do my functional implementations permit LCO (last call optimization, a.k.a tail recursion elimination) and hence avoid adding unnecessary frames onto the call stack?

I really tried to implement the same algorithm as similar as possible in the four languages, although I have to admit that my Haskell and Erlang knowledge is very limited.


Source codes used:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

int factorCount (long n)
{
    double square = sqrt (n);
    int isquare = (int) square;
    int count = isquare == square ? -1 : 0;
    long candidate;
    for (candidate = 1; candidate <= isquare; candidate ++)
        if (0 == n % candidate) count += 2;
    return count;
}

int main ()
{
    long triangle = 1;
    int index = 1;
    while (factorCount (triangle) < 1001)
    {
        index ++;
        triangle += index;
    }
    printf ("%ld\n", triangle);
}

#! /usr/bin/env python3.2

import math

def factorCount (n):
    square = math.sqrt (n)
    isquare = int (square)
    count = -1 if isquare == square else 0
    for candidate in range (1, isquare + 1):
        if not n % candidate: count += 2
    return count

triangle = 1
index = 1
while factorCount (triangle) < 1001:
    index += 1
    triangle += index

print (triangle)

-module (euler12).
-compile (export_all).

factorCount (Number) -> factorCount (Number, math:sqrt (Number), 1, 0).

factorCount (_, Sqrt, Candidate, Count) when Candidate > Sqrt -> Count;

factorCount (_, Sqrt, Candidate, Count) when Candidate == Sqrt -> Count + 1;

factorCount (Number, Sqrt, Candidate, Count) ->
    case Number rem Candidate of
        0 -> factorCount (Number, Sqrt, Candidate + 1, Count + 2);
        _ -> factorCount (Number, Sqrt, Candidate + 1, Count)
    end.

nextTriangle (Index, Triangle) ->
    Count = factorCount (Triangle),
    if
        Count > 1000 -> Triangle;
        true -> nextTriangle (Index + 1, Triangle + Index + 1)  
    end.

solve () ->
    io:format ("~p~n", [nextTriangle (1, 1) ] ),
    halt (0).

factorCount number = factorCount' number isquare 1 0 - (fromEnum $ square == fromIntegral isquare)
    where square = sqrt $ fromIntegral number
          isquare = floor square

factorCount' number sqrt candidate count
    | fromIntegral candidate > sqrt = count
    | number `mod` candidate == 0 = factorCount' number sqrt (candidate + 1) (count + 2)
    | otherwise = factorCount' number sqrt (candidate + 1) count

nextTriangle index triangle
    | factorCount triangle > 1000 = triangle
    | otherwise = nextTriangle (index + 1) (triangle + index + 1)

main = print $ nextTriangle 1 1

Source: (StackOverflow)

What are the barriers to understanding pointers and what can be done to overcome them? [closed]

Why are pointers such a leading factor of confusion for many new, and even old, college level students in C or C++? Are there any tools or thought processes that helped you understand how pointers work at the variable, function, and beyond level?

What are some good practice things that can be done to bring somebody to the level of, "Ah-hah, I got it," without getting them bogged down in the overall concept? Basically, drill like scenarios.


Source: (StackOverflow)

How to initialize an array in C

I have a large array in C (not C++ if that makes a difference). I want to initialize all members to the same value. I could swear I once knew a simple way to do this. I could use memset() in my case, but isn't there a way to do this that is built right into the C syntax?


Source: (StackOverflow)

How do function pointers in C work?

I had some experience lately with function pointers in C.

So going on with the tradition of answering your own questions, I decided to make a small summary of the very basics, for those who need a quick dive-in to the subject.


Source: (StackOverflow)

Divide a number by 3 without using *, /, +, -, % operators

How would you divide a number by 3 without using *, /, +, -, %, operators?

The number may be signed or unsigned.


Source: (StackOverflow)

In C++ source, what is the effect of extern "C"?

What exactly does putting extern "C" into C++ code do?

For example:

extern "C" {
   void foo();
}

Source: (StackOverflow)