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dual-boot interview questions

Top dual-boot frequently asked interview questions

How do I scan my windows partition for viruses from Ubuntu?

I think I might have a virus on my windows partition and I want to scan it from Ubuntu. Is this possible? I would like a program that is free.

clamAV
I tried clamAV but I couldn't find a setting for scaning my other partition that I have windows on, it scaned my Ubuntu disk and that was fine.

Antivirus Within Windows
I can't use my Windows partition since the virus make my laptop freeze every time I log in. And I don't want it to spread or make more damage than it might have done already.


Source: (StackOverflow)

Installing Ubuntu on a Pre-Installed Windows 10 with UEFI

I'm absolutely new to Linux. I have been using Windows for all my life, but I have read about Ubuntu (and Linux in general) and I think I'll like it, so I wanted to know how to install Ubuntu on my PC with a Pre-Installed Windows 8 or later on it.

Can I do it with Wubi or through the Live USB/DVD?

What steps do I need to take to correctly install Ubuntu?


Source: (StackOverflow)

How can I repair grub? (How to get Ubuntu back after installing Windows?)

I installed Windows 7, which ate Ubuntu's boot file. When starting up the computer, it now goes straight to Windows, without giving me the option of booting Ubuntu.

How can I get Ubuntu back?


Source: (StackOverflow)

Clock time is off on dual boot

Dual boot system Windows XP Pro and Ubuntu 12.04.

I have the bios set for the correct time and Ubuntu set for US Eastern time. Ubuntu will boot up and the time will be off by -4 hours. If I correct the time in Ubuntu then when I boot up in Windows XP the time will be off by + 4 hours.

This is a fresh install of 12.04. I did not have this problem before reinstalling Ubuntu.


Source: (StackOverflow)

How do I set the grub timeout and the grub default boot entry?

In Ubuntu 12.04 (or above), how do I set the GRUB time and the default OS (that I see at boot time) as I'm dual-booting Windows (7/8) and Ubuntu (12.04 or above)?


Source: (StackOverflow)

How can I install Windows after I've installed Ubuntu?

I have Ubuntu on my laptop. Now I want install Windows 7 in a dual-boot. How can I do this?

I can't lose my Ubuntu files, and I'm afraid that I might break GRUB.


Source: (StackOverflow)

How to automount NTFS partitions?

I have two NTFS partitions, and I don't want to mount them everytime I start Ubuntu.

  • How can I do this?
  • Is there a tool or a code to use?
  • If so, is it safe to automount? specially when they are being used by another OS?

Source: (StackOverflow)

How to get grub2 to remember last choice?

Grub2 - Community Ubuntu Documentation says the following:

Saving an OS can be achieved by running sudo grub-set-default if DEFAULT=saved is set in /etc/default/grub. It may also be saved if GRUB_SAVEDEFAULT=true is also set in /etc/default/grub. In this case, the default OS remains until a new OS is manually selected from the GRUB 2 menu or the grub-set-default command is executed.

I put the lines DEFAULT=saved AND GRUB_SAVEDEFAULT=true in /etc/default/grub, and ran sudo grub-set-default. Here is the output:

$ sudo grub-set-default
entry not specified.
Usage: grub-set-default [OPTION] entry
Set the default boot entry for GRUB.

  -h, --help              print this message and exit
  -v, --version           print the version information and exit
  --boot-directory=DIR    expect GRUB images under the directory DIR/grub
                          instead of the /boot/grub directory

ENTRY is a number or a menu item title.

Report bugs to <bug-grub@gnu.org>.

Am I not following the documentation correctly? What's the correct way to do this?


Source: (StackOverflow)

How can I dual boot Windows and Ubuntu?

I currently have Windows 7 on my computer and I want to install Ubuntu alongside Windows safely.

Could someone please provide clear instructions?


Source: (StackOverflow)

Windows 10 upgrade kills grub and boot-repair doesn't help

I've just upgraded to Windows 10 from Windows 8.1 on my partitioned laptop that has Ubuntu 14.04 installed. Grub no longer appeared on boot so I ran boot-repair from an Ubuntu liveUSB. This didn't seem to have any effect. I've checked and secure boot is still disabled.
Log from boot-repair: http://paste.ubuntu.com/11972534/
So what's next?

Update: I've attempted to use chroot to update grub from my Ubuntu partition. update-grub runs successfully finding both linux and windows boot manager but the process still doesn't have any effect. grub-install complains that it cannot find EFI directory (but I have mounted everything correctly).

Update2: Just discovered that running efibootmgr after chroot into ubuntu shows ubuntu as not being in the boot order at all. I manually changed the order and rebooted to discover that the bootorder was reset. I run in windows: bcdedit /set {bootmgr} path \EFI\ubuntu\shimx64.efi But this has no effect either even after reporting 'Operation Successful'.


Source: (StackOverflow)

Grub rescue - error: unknown filesystem

I have a multiboot system set up. The system has three drives. Multiboot is configured with Windows XP, Windows 7, and Ubuntu - all on the first drive. I had a lot of unpartitioned space left on the drive and was reserving it for adding other OSes and for storing files there in the future.

One day I went ahead and downloaded Partition Wizard and created a logical NTFS partition from within Windows 7, still some unpartitioned space left over. Everything worked fine, until I rebooted the computer a few days later.

Now I'm getting:

error: unknown filesystem.  
grub rescue>

First of all I was surprised not to find any kind of help command, by trying:

help, ?, man, --help, -h, bash, cmd, etc.

Now I'm stuck with non-bootable system. I have started researching the issue and finding that people usually recommend to boot to a Live CD and fix the issue from there. Is there a way to fix this issue from within grub rescue without the need for Live CD?

UPDATE

By following the steps from persist commands typed to grub rescue, I was able to boot to initramfs prompt. But not anywhere further than that.

So far from reading the manual on grub rescue, I was able to see my drives and partitions using ls command. For the first hard drive I see the following:
(hd0) (hd0,msdos6) (hd0,msdos5) (hd0,msdos2) (hd0,msdos1)

I now know that (hd0,msdos6) contains Linux on it, since ls (hd0,msdos6)/ lists directories. Others will give "error: unknown filesystem."

UPDATE 2

After the following commands I am now getting to the boot menu and can boot into Windows 7 and Ubuntu, but upon reboot I have to repeat these steps.

ls
ls (hd0,msdos6)/
set root=(hd0,msdos6)
ls /
set prefix=(hd0,msdos6)/boot/grub
insmod /boot/grub/linux.mod
normal

UPDATE 3

Thanks Shashank Singh, with your instructions I have simplified my steps to the following. I have learned from you that I can replace msdos6 with just a 6 and that I can just do insmod normal instead of insmod /boot/grub/linux.mod. Now I just need to figure out how to save this settings from within grub itself, without booting into any OS.

set root=(hd0,6)
set prefix=(hd0,6)/boot/grub
insmod normal
normal

UPDATE 4

Well, it seems like it is a requirement to boot into Linux. After booting into Ubuntu I have performed the following steps described in the manual:

sudo update-grub
sudo grub-install /dev/sda

This did not resolve the issue. I still get the grub rescue prompt. What do I need to do to permanently fix it?

I have also learned that drive numbers as in hd0 need to be translated to drive letters as in /dev/sda for some commands. hd1 would be sdb, hd2 would be sdc, and so on. Partitions listed in grub as (hd0,msdos6) would be translated to /dev/sda6.

UPDATE 5

I could not figure out why the following did not fix grub:

sudo update-grub
sudo grub-install /dev/sda

So I downloaded boot-repair based on an answer from https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Boot-Repair post. That seemed to do the trick after I picked the "Recommended Repair (repairs most frequent problems)" option.


Source: (StackOverflow)

Is Ubuntu destroying my internal HDD?

I have an Inspiron 3521 that came pre-installed with Windows 8.1. I decided to dual-boot Windows and Ubuntu, and it was working good. But, when using Ubuntu, I heard a lot of noise from my laptop while on using Windows, it was almost silent. Also, after about 2-3 weeks of using Ubuntu, I was unable to use Windows as it had become very slow. Now I am getting my HDD replaced as it is failing. So, is installing Ubuntu and using it destroying my HDD? Because before installing it, Windows was running well but after it, it has become almost unusable. So, should I install Ubuntu on my new disk or should I refrain from it. Please help because I like Ubuntu more than Windows, but I can't risk buying new HDDs over and over again. Also, completely removing Windows is not a choice.

Please let me know if I should install Ubuntu alongside?

Output of : smartctl -a /dev/sda :

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Device Model:     ST500LT012-1DG142
Serial Number:    W3P8Y9MR
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 07c643db0
Firmware Version: 0001SDM1
User Capacity:    500,107,862,016 bytes [500 GB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical
Rotation Rate:    5400 rpm
Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
ATA Version is:   ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 4
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.0, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Tue Feb 17 15:58:15 2015 IST
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x82) Offline data collection activity
                    was completed without error.
                    Auto Offline Data Collection: Enabled.
Self-test execution status:      (   0) The previous self-test routine completed
                    without error or no self-test has ever 
                    been run.
Total time to complete Offline 
data collection:        (    0) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:            (0x7b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                    Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
                    Suspend Offline collection upon new
                    command.
                    Offline surface scan supported.
                    Self-test supported.
                    Conveyance Self-test supported.
                    Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering
                    power-saving mode.
                    Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01) Error logging supported.
                    General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine 
recommended polling time:    (   1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:    (  97) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time:    (   2) minutes.
SCT capabilities:          (0x1035) SCT Status supported.
                    SCT Feature Control supported.
                    SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 10
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000f   117   080   006    Pre-fail  Always       -       158207928
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0003   099   099   000    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       -       414
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   100   100   036    Pre-fail  Always       -       16
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x000f   064   060   030    Pre-fail  Always       -       38678857862
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       772 (87 233 0)
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0013   100   100   097    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       -       384
184 End-to-End_Error        0x0032   100   100   099    Old_age   Always       -       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032   001   001   000    Old_age   Always       -       1465
188 Command_Timeout         0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
189 High_Fly_Writes         0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022   059   052   045    Old_age   Always       -       41 (Min/Max 29/43)
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       195
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       14
193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   096   096   000    Old_age   Always       -       8566
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0022   041   048   000    Old_age   Always       -       41 (0 17 0 0 0)
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       8
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0010   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       8
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x003e   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
240 Head_Flying_Hours       0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       276333900858102
241 Total_LBAs_Written      0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       2960885917
242 Total_LBAs_Read         0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       5374462826
254 Free_Fall_Sensor        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0

SMART Error Log Version: 1
ATA Error Count: 2175 (device log contains only the most recent five errors)
    CR = Command Register [HEX]
    FR = Features Register [HEX]
    SC = Sector Count Register [HEX]
    SN = Sector Number Register [HEX]
    CL = Cylinder Low Register [HEX]
    CH = Cylinder High Register [HEX]
    DH = Device/Head Register [HEX]
    DC = Device Command Register [HEX]
    ER = Error register [HEX]
    ST = Status register [HEX]
Powered_Up_Time is measured from power on, and printed as
DDd+hh:mm:SS.sss where DD=days, hh=hours, mm=minutes,
SS=sec, and sss=millisec. It "wraps" after 49.710 days.

Error 2175 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 758 hours (31 days + 14 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 00 20 19 56 00  Error: UNC at LBA = 0x00561920 = 5642528

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  60 00 00 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:34.369  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  61 00 68 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:34.369  WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
  61 00 10 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:34.369  WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 08 20 19 56 40 00      00:15:34.368  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 40 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:34.368  READ FPDMA QUEUED

Error 2174 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 758 hours (31 days + 14 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 00 20 19 56 00  Error: UNC at LBA = 0x00561920 = 5642528

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  60 00 08 20 19 56 40 00      00:15:31.814  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 20 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:31.814  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  61 00 08 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:31.813  WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
  ea 00 00 00 00 00 a0 00      00:15:31.813  FLUSH CACHE EXT
  27 00 00 00 00 00 e0 00      00:15:31.787  READ NATIVE MAX ADDRESS EXT [OBS-ACS-3]

Error 2173 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 758 hours (31 days + 14 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 00 20 19 56 00  Error: WP at LBA = 0x00561920 = 5642528

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  61 00 10 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:29.177  WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
  61 00 08 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:29.177  WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
  61 00 08 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:29.177  WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 08 20 19 56 40 00      00:15:29.176  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 08 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:29.176  READ FPDMA QUEUED

Error 2172 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 758 hours (31 days + 14 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 00 20 19 56 00  Error: WP at LBA = 0x00561920 = 5642528

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  61 00 08 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:26.514  WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
  61 00 18 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:26.513  WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 08 20 19 56 40 00      00:15:26.513  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 40 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:26.513  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  61 00 08 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:26.513  WRITE FPDMA QUEUED

Error 2171 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 758 hours (31 days + 14 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 00 20 19 56 00  Error: UNC at LBA = 0x00561920 = 5642528

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  60 00 40 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:18.647  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 20 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:18.641  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 08 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:18.629  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 20 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:18.619  READ FPDMA QUEUED
  60 00 20 ff ff ff 4f 00      00:15:18.607  READ FPDMA QUEUED

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Short offline       Completed: read failure       90%       760         5642528
# 2  Short offline       Completed: read failure       90%       759         5642528
# 3  Short offline       Completed: read failure       90%       759         5642528
# 4  Short offline       Completed: read failure       90%       758         5642528
# 5  Short offline       Completed: read failure       90%       756         5642528
# 6  Short offline       Completed: read failure       90%       752         5642528
# 7  Extended offline    Completed: read failure       90%       752         5642528
# 8  Short offline       Completed: read failure       90%       752         5642528

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Not_testing
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0): 
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

Note: The above test is from the old HDD, which I think was destroyed by coincidence while running Ubuntu.

Output of sudo parted --list:

Model: ATA ST500LT012-1DG14 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 500GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
Partition Table: gpt

Number  Start   End    Size    File system     Name                          Flags
 1      1049kB  316MB  315MB   ntfs            Basic data partition          hidden, diag
 2      316MB   419MB  104MB   fat32           EFI system partition          boot
 3      419MB   554MB  134MB                   Microsoft reserved partition  msftres
 4      554MB   237GB  236GB   ntfs            Basic data partition          msftdata
10      237GB   289GB  52.4GB  ext4
 7      289GB   293GB  4096MB  linux-swap(v1)
 8      293GB   314GB  20.5GB  ext4
 9      314GB   342GB  27.9GB  ext4
 5      342GB   395GB  53.7GB  ntfs            Basic data partition          msftdata
 6      395GB   500GB  105GB   ntfs            Basic data partition          msftdata

Source: (StackOverflow)

Automatically mount NTFS drive when I login

I use Ubuntu 11.10 and Windows7 dual boot with Ubuntu as my primary OS.

Every time I need to access a document I need to mount the respective drive, though this is not at all tiresome, still, is there any way that drives becomes automatically mounted when I login?


Source: (StackOverflow)

Windows 10 upgrade lead into grub rescue

I was dual-booting Windows 7 and Linux Ubuntu on my desktop, and today is the day they gave out free Windows 10 upgrades. How exciting! I got the update, and it was installing, and I left to go take a 30 minute nap. However, when I came back to my computer, it led me to the grub rescue prompt.

error: no such partition.
Entering rescue mode...
grub rescue>

I get the following when I type ls:

grub rescue> ls
(hd0) (hd0,msdos5) (hd0,msdos3) (hd0,msdos2) (hd0,msdos1)

After a quick look through of people who encountered the grub rescue prompt, I typed set and got the following

grub rescue> set
cmdpath=(hd0)
prefix=(hd0,msdos6)/boot/grub
root=hd0,msdos6

I was still kind of lost after finding that certain commands like normal didn't work, and then I found a video tutorial where you boot from a Linux image cd and run some commands on the terminal. Luckily, I had my CD with me, and booted from there. When I typed sudo fdisk -l into the terminal however, this is what I got:

ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 1000.2 GB, 1000204886016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 121601 cylinders, total 1953525168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xc03ede74

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048      206847      102400    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda2          206848  1547022335   773407744    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda3      1547022336  1547943935      460800   27  Hidden NTFS WinRE
/dev/sda4      1547945982  1953521663   202787841    f  W95 Ext'd (LBA)
/dev/sda5      1915731968  1953521663    18894848    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

Says here none of my devices has the Linux system in them! And I couldn't follow the video tutorial any more than that...

I teased my brain a little and determined that sda2 contained my Windows system (since I remember my C: drive has around 700-ish GB of space). After thinking a little bit more, I remember assigning around 200-ish GB of my hard disk space to something that's Ubuntu related when installing Ubuntu. I don't exactly remember which, but I think it was basically Ubuntu "hard disk space", and it didn't have any boot files in them. I assigned two other things for linux, but they were very small in size (not breaking the 1 GB mark yet).

So, can anyone here help me out get my upgrade back on track? I won't mind if I end up having to completely remove the partitions that have Linux in them.


Source: (StackOverflow)

How do I hide the GRUB menu showing up in the beginning of boot?

I stopped Dualbooting and I dont want to have to choose the OS anymore and just have it load Ubuntu like normal like before?

Any help is appreciated.


Source: (StackOverflow)